Recently India’s refusal to vote against China on the issue of seeking a debate on Uyghur genocide in Xinjiang province of China, in United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHCR) again brought focus back to status of Uyghur Muslims in China. Such news is generally accompanied with emotionally charged outrage and people accuse the Chinese Government of brutally oppressing Uyghur Muslims. We have seen even Indians shedding tears for Uyghur Muslims and showing solidarity for their cause. However, most of the Indians are unaware of the background and history of Uyghurs.


These Uyghurs are predominantly Turkic-speaking ethnic groups primarily from China’s northwestern region of Xinjiang. It is said that more than 10 million Uyghur Muslims live in this region. Uyghurs speak their own language, which is quite similar to the Uzbek language. Most of the Uyghurs practice Sunni Islam.

This Xinjiang region has been under China’s administrative control since 1949. It is an extremely important province which has had high strategic and business importance since ages. It shares borders with other Muslim countries like Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Mongolia. It is situated along the ancient Silk Road trading route and known for its abundance of oil and other natural resources including rare earth metals.

The current accusations against the Chinese government is, among other things, mandatory sterilisation to keep the population of Uyghurs under check while infusing Han ethnic people in the area to have demographic control over the area.


The current Xinjiang region was known for its Buddhist roots, as documented by the famous Chinese traveller Xuanzong in 7th Century AD. We can still see the ruins of many Buddhist monasteries in the Turfan area of Xinjiang. The art and cultural evidence prove the connection of ancient India with this region. Buddhism was adopted by the famous Kocho kingdom of Uyghurs, later on, Christianity also started spreading its influence via missionaries.

However, acute demographic changes began with the arrival of Islam in the Tarim Basin area. In 821 AD, an Arab ambassador visited the Uyghur kingdom and Islam spread like a wildfire since 11th century AD, and in just a few decades, Islam became the most dominant religion of the entire region and its neighboring states.

It is said that Uyghurs started conversion at a rapid pace and they hardly have any respect for people of other ethnicities and religions. Xinjiang has been home to many ethnic groups throughout history, Uyghurs were comparatively new in this region. Various Chinese dynasties (Han ethnicity) at times have ruled over Xinjian, but the brutal uprising started in the early part of the last century.

In the early 1930s, Uyghur leadership started an uprising to grab land from Chinese Han dynasty rulers. Uyghurs were led by Muhammad Amin Bughra and Abdullah Bughra, they infused hatred against Hans, Hindus, and Christians and initiated this bloody battle which cost thousands of innocent lives.


The Kumul Rebellion  (Hami Uprising) was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs from 1931 to 1934 who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen. Ma Zhongying to overthrow Jin Shuren, governor of Xinjiang. The Kumul Uyghurs were loyalists of the Kumul Khanate Khans and wanted to restore the heir of the Khanate and overthrow Jin. The Kuomintang wanted Jin removed because of his ties to the Soviet Union, so it approved of the operation while pretending to acknowledge Jin as governor. The rebellion then blew up into large-scale fighting as Khotanlik Uyghur rebels in southern Xinjiang started a separate rebellion for independence in collusion with Kirghiz rebels. Various groups rebelled, and were not united (some even fought each other). The main part of the war was waged by Ma Zhongying against the Xinjiang government. He was supported by Chiang Kai-shek, the Premier of China, who secretly agreed to let Ma seize Xinjiang.

The Bughras applied Shariah law in the Xinjiang region and started attacking the Hindus and Christians and were forcing them to convert into Islam. In the name of Islam, Uyghur leader Amir Abdullah Bughra attacked many Swedish missionaries and killed many Christians. Bughra’s army beheaded and killed thousands of Muslims who had converted to Christianity, as it was considered as ‘Haram’ for them. Several thousand other Uyghur Muslims who were converted to Christianity were executed at Uyghur Habil in 1933.

Uyghurs killed hundreds of Hindus in Shamba Bazaar, Khotan and Posgam on 25th March 1933. They snatched the belongings of Hindus, slaughtered them with their families, and asked the remaining Hindus to desert the Xinjiang region.

Muslim Turkic Uyghur plundered the possessions in Karghalik of Rai Sahib Dip Chand (famous Indian businessman) and his fellow Hindus on 24th March 1933. Several hundreds of Hindus were massacred in Keryia city, where a huge number of migrant Hindus from Sindh’s Shikarpur district were living for decades. Many Hindus’ throats were slit and thrown in wells to die slowly, just like Kerala’s Mopla Style.

The selective slaughter of the Indian Hindus was infamously called the “Karghalik Outrage“. The Emirs of Khotan (Uyghurs) orchestrated this ethnic cleansing of Hindus and Christians and declared Sharia law in Khotan on March 16, 1933.


Hindus were living in Xinjiang for ages, and they were economically well off, on the other hand, Uyghurs were nomadic, they used to loiter and were religious fanatics. Uyghurs used to mistreat their women in inhumane fashion, they used to marry and divorce at will and used to treat their women like an animal. Uyghur men used to sell their children. 

To escape this pathetic treatment, Uyghur women used to desert them and marry non-Muslims, i.e. Hindus, Christian, or Han Chinese. The Sindhi men had Uyghur mistresses which hurt the pride of the Uyghur men. Uyghur men were also in heavy debt to the Hindus who were lending them the money. Deep seated envy made them loathe the Hindus. This indeed acts as a trigger, as Uyghurs targeted only Hindus and Christians. Han were out of their bounds, hence they never tried to do any sort of misadventure against them.

Uyghurs were extremely violent, and they were always up in arms against Hindus and Christians. There is much documentary evidence which proves that Uyghurs used to slaughter cows purposefully to offend and demean Hindus. Per Uyghurs, Hindus and Christians have no right to live in Sharia-compliant states.


Today, China is pushing more citizens into Xinjiang province. It is said that China has a state policy which is known as Sinicization or could be called ‘Hanification’ has led to demographic change in this region. China has started paying them back in their language. China has started concentration camps, stopped the Islamic conversion, they even started re-writing Islamic books to sensitise them to Chinese sensibilities.

It is extremely hard for Uyghurs to find jobs, as Chinese authorities give first preference to either a person with ‘Han’ ethnicity or someone else from mainland China for government jobs.

The emotional outpouring seen in support of Uyghurs, only represents the lack of knowledge about the grave sins these Uyghurs have committed. They massacred hundreds of thousands of Hindus, Christians and Chinese, just because they were not sharing the same faith and God. People giving lectures on humanity for not voting in favour of Uyghur in the UN should realize that even today if Uyghurs get a chance, they will never hesitate to repeat their bloodthirsty desire to kick everyone else out of their territory.

The game of domination & oppression is a Boomerang. Societies undergo the exact retaliation in this cyclical cosmos.


1.“The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750–1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama” – Claude Markovits

2.“Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia” – Andrew D. W. Forbes, LLC Forbe

3.News from Tartary: A Journey from Peking to Kashmir (reprint ed.). Evanston Illinois

4. HINDU POST: 1933 massacre of Sindhi Hindu traders in Xinjiang by Uyghur Muslims. March 10, 2022.